Sperm Health:
Unlocking Male Infertility

Positive Steps Fertility

The Role of Sperm in Conception

Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples, and male factor infertility is responsible for about 40-50% of all infertility cases. The bottom line, when it comes to fertility, the male role cannot be ignored and highlights the importance of addressing sperm health when trying to conceive.

Sperm play a vital role in the process of conception. The primary function of sperm is to fertilize the female’s egg, forming a zygote, which eventually develops into an embryo. For fertilization to occur, sperm must be healthy and have the ability to swim efficiently through the female reproductive system to reach the egg.


Semen Analysis: How do you test the health of male sperm?

One of the most critical factors in achieving a successful pregnancy is sperm quality. Sperm quality is not just about how many sperm you produce but also how well they move, how healthy they are, and how compatible they are with the egg.

Several factors contribute to sperm health, including

  • sperm count,
  • motility,
  • morphology, and
  • DNA integrity.

A semen analysis is a test that offers a fundamental overview of sperm quantity and quality; however, it may not identify all potential issues affecting fertility. This test typically involves evaluating several semen parameters, such as:

Sperm Count: The Foundation for Fertility

A healthy sperm count is essential for successful conception. A low sperm count can make it difficult for sperm to reach and fertilize the egg, reducing the chances of pregnancy. A healthy sperm count is considered to be at least 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen. At Positive Steps Fertility, we provide comprehensive semen analysis to evaluate your sperm count and help identify any potential issues.

Sperm Motility: Ensuring Efficient Swimming

Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to swim efficiently toward the egg. Poor motility can hinder the sperm’s ability to reach and penetrate the egg, leading to fertility issues. By assessing sperm motility through advanced diagnostic techniques, we can help identify the underlying causes of poor motility and provide targeted treatments to improve your chances of conception.

The World Health Organization cutoff is 15 million total motile sperm, so 95% of men will have more than 15 million total motile sperm. What is also relevant about this number is that approximately 1 sperm per 10 million total motile sperm will find an egg after intercourse. If a man has 200 million total motile sperm, then 20 should find an egg. If a man has 1 million total motile sperm, then this means that 1 sperm may find an egg per year.

Sperm Morphology: The Significance of Shape and Structure

Sperm morphology refers to the shape and structure of sperm. Abnormal sperm morphology can impact the sperm’s ability to fertilize the egg, making conception more challenging. A normal sperm morphology is usually above 4%, which means that at least 4% of the sperm have an oval head, a long tail, and no defects. A low sperm morphology (teratozoospermia) can affect the function and viability of the sperm.

Sperm DNA Integrity: Ensuring a Healthy Pregnancy

Healthy sperm DNA is crucial for successful conception and a healthy pregnancy. Damaged sperm DNA can lead to fertility issues or even miscarriages. We use state-of-the-art technology to assess sperm DNA integrity and identify any potential damage.


What are the signs of low sperm count in men?

Low sperm count, also known as oligospermia, can be a significant factor in male infertility. Understanding the signs and symptoms of low sperm count is essential in determining the potential causes and seeking appropriate treatment.

Definition and Diagnosis of Low Sperm Count (Oligospermia)

Low sperm count, or oligospermia, refers to a situation where the number of sperm in a man’s ejaculate is below the normal range. A healthy sperm count typically falls between 15 million and 200 million sperm per milliliter of semen. When the sperm count is below 15 million sperm per milliliter, it is considered low.

Diagnosis of low sperm count involves a comprehensive semen analysis, which assesses sperm count, motility, and morphology. This test is typically conducted in a fertility clinic or laboratory, where a semen sample is collected and analyzed.

Potential Symptoms of Low Sperm Count

While some men with low sperm count may not experience any symptoms, others may notice changes in their sexual function and overall health. Common symptoms of low sperm count include:

  1. Reduced sexual desire: Low sperm count can sometimes be associated with hormonal imbalances, which can lead to a decrease in sexual desire or libido.
  2. Difficulty maintaining an erection: Men with low sperm count may also have difficulty achieving or maintaining an erection, also known as erectile dysfunction. Hormonal imbalances, stress, or other underlying health conditions can cause this issue.

Asymptomatic Low Sperm Count

It’s important to note that low sperm count can often be asymptomatic, meaning that men may not experience any noticeable symptoms. In such cases, low sperm count is usually discovered during fertility testing when a couple is struggling to conceive.

Low Sperm Count and Infertility

Low sperm count can significantly impact a man’s fertility, reducing the chances of successful conception. With fewer sperm available, the likelihood of sperm reaching and fertilizing the egg decreases. As a result, couples may experience difficulty in achieving pregnancy.

If a low sperm count is suspected or diagnosed, it’s crucial to consult with a fertility specialist to identify the underlying causes and recommend appropriate treatments to improve sperm count and overall fertility.


Are their lifestyle factors that can improve sperm quality?

Here are seven lifestyle changes that can improve sperm quality:

Sperm Morphology: The Significance of Shape and Structure

  • Maintaining a healthy weight: Being overweight or underweight can lead to hormonal imbalances that can affect sperm production and quality. Maintaining a healthy weight can help improve hormonal balance, which can improve sperm quality.
  • Quitting smoking: Smoking can cause oxidative stress and damage to sperm DNA, which can affect sperm quality and quantity. Quitting smoking can reduce the amount of oxidative stress and damage to sperm, which can improve sperm quality.
  • Regular exercise: Regular exercise can improve blood flow to the testes, which can help increase the delivery of nutrients and oxygen to the testes and improve sperm quality. Exercise can also help reduce stress, which can negatively impact sperm quality.
  • Eating a healthy diet: A healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources can provide the essential vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants needed for healthy sperm production and function. A healthy diet can also help reduce inflammation in the body, which can negatively affect sperm quality.
  • Reducing alcohol consumption: Heavy alcohol consumption can negatively affect sperm quality and quantity. Reducing or eliminating alcohol consumption can help improve sperm quality.
  • Managing stress: Stress can negatively impact sperm quality by increasing levels of oxidative stress and inflammation in the body. Engaging in stress-reducing activities can help reduce stress and improve sperm quality.
  • Avoiding exposure to toxins: Exposure to toxins such as pesticides, chemicals, and radiation can negatively affect sperm quality. Taking steps to avoid exposure to these toxins can help improve sperm quality.

What are Diagnostic Services to test Male Fertility?

According to the American Urological Association (AUA) and American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), the following is a comprehensive list of diagnostic services to assess male fertility:

  1. Semen Analysis: Evaluates sperm count, motility, morphology, and other semen parameters to assess overall sperm health.
  2. Hormone Testing: Blood tests to measure levels of essential hormones responsible for sperm production and overall reproductive health, such as testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and prolactin.
  3. Genetic Testing: Identifies genetic abnormalities or mutations that may contribute to male infertility or an increased risk of specific congenital disabilities.
  4. Imaging Techniques:
    • Scrotal Ultrasound: A non-invasive imaging method to detect structural abnormalities, varicoceles, or blockages in the male reproductive system.
    • Transrectal Ultrasound: Helps to evaluate the prostate and seminal vesicles for abnormalities or blockages.
  5. Post-Ejaculatory Urinalysis: Detects the presence of sperm in the urine after ejaculation, which may indicate retrograde ejaculation.
  6. Antisperm Antibodies Test: Evaluates the presence of immune system proteins that mistakenly target and damage sperm, potentially affecting fertility.
  7. Testicular Biopsy: A minor surgical procedure to obtain a small tissue sample from the testicles, which can help diagnose sperm production issues or confirm the presence of sperm in cases of obstructive azoospermia.
  8. Sperm DNA Fragmentation Testing: Analyzes the integrity of sperm DNA, as high levels of DNA fragmentation can negatively impact fertility.
  9. Sperm Function Tests: Various tests to assess sperm function, such as the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS test), sperm penetration assay (SPA), or zona-free hamster egg penetration test.

Sperm Health: Unlocking Male Infertility Solutions

By utilizing these diagnostic services, we can effectively assess male fertility and develop tailored treatment plans to address any identified issues.

Sperm quality testing is an important step in evaluating male fertility and reproductive potential. With proper diagnosis and treatment, many men with poor sperm quality can confront their infertility challenges and get one step closer on their fertility journey.

If you’re experiencing difficulties conceiving, don’t hesitate to seek guidance from a fertility expert. You don’t have to face this challenge alone.

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